Audio Pronunciation Of Medical Terms

Jun 30, 2011

Speech recognition

History

The first speech recognizer appeared in 1952 and consisted of a device for the recognition of single spoken digits Another early device was the IBM Shoebox, exhibited at the 1964 New York World’s Fair.

One of the most notable domains for the commercial application of speech recognition in the United States has been health care and in particular the work of the Medical transcriptionist (MT)[citation needed]. According to industry experts, at its inception, speech recognition (SR) was sold as a way to completely eliminate transcription rather than make the transcription process more efficient, hence it was not accepted. It was also the case that SR at that time was often technically deficient. Additionally, to be used effectively, it required changes to the ways physicians worked and documented clinical encounters, which many if not all were reluctant to do. The biggest limitation to speech recognition automating transcription, however, is seen as the software. The nature of narrative dictation is highly interpretive and often requires judgment that may be provided by a real human but not yet by an automated system. Another limitation has been the extensive amount of time required by the user and/or system provider to train the software.

A distinction in ASR is often made between “artificial syntax systems” which are usually domain-specific and “natural language processing” which is usually language-specific. Each of these types of application presents its own particular goals and challenges.

Applications

Health care

In the health care domain, even in the wake of improving speech recognition technologies, medical transcriptionists (MTs) have not yet become obsolete. Many experts in the field[who?] anticipate that with increased use of speech recognition technology, the services provided may be redistributed rather than replaced. Speech recognition is used to enable deaf people to understand the spoken word via speech to text conversion, which is very helpful.

Speech recognition can be implemented in front-end or back-end of the medical documentation process.

Front-End SR is where the provider dictates into a speech-recognition engine, the recognized words are displayed right after they are spoken, and the dictator is responsible for editing and signing off on the document. It never goes through an MT/editor.

Back-End SR or Deferred SR is where the provider dictates into a digital dictation system, and the voice is routed through a speech-recognition machine and the recognized draft document is routed along with the original voice file to the MT/editor, who edits the draft and finalizes the report. Deferred SR is being widely used in the industry currently.

Many Electronic Medical Records (EMR) applications can be more effective and may be performed more easily when deployed in conjunction with a speech-recognition engine. Searches, queries, and form filling may all be faster to perform by voice than by using a keyboard.

Military

High-performance fighter aircraft

Substantial efforts have been devoted in the last decade to the test and evaluation of speech recognition in fighter aircraft. Of particular note are the U.S. program in speech recognition for the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI)/F-16 aircraft (F-16 VISTA), the program in France on installing speech recognition systems on Mirage aircraft, and programs in the UK dealing with a variety of aircraft platforms. In these programs, speech recognizers have been operated successfully in fighter aircraft with applications including: setting radio frequencies, commanding an autopilot system, setting steer-point coordinates and weapons release parameters, and controlling flight displays. Generally, only very limited, constrained vocabularies have been used successfully, and a major effort has been devoted to integration of the speech recognizer with the avionics system.

Some important conclusions from the work were as follows:

Speech recognition has definite potential for reducing pilot workload, but this potential was not realized consistently.

Achievement of very high recognition accuracy (95% or more) was the most critical factor for making the speech recognition system useful  with lower recognition rates, pilots would not use the system.

More natural vocabulary and grammar, and shorter training times would be useful, but only if very high recognition rates could be maintained.

Laboratory research in robust speech recognition for military environments has produced promising results which, if extendable to the cockpit, should improve the utility of speech recognition in high-performance aircraft.

Working with Swedish pilots flying in the JAS-39 Gripen cockpit, Englund (2004) found recognition deteriorated with increasing G-loads. It was also concluded that adaptation greatly improved the results in all cases and introducing models for breathing was shown to improve recognition scores significantly. Contrary to what might be expected, no effects of the broken English of the speakers were found. It was evident that spontaneous speech caused problems for the recognizer, as could be expected. A restricted vocabulary, and above all, a proper syntax, could thus be expected to improve recognition accuracy substantially.

The Eurofighter Typhoon currently in service with the UK RAF employs a speaker-dependent system, i.e. it requires each pilot to create a template. The system is not used for any safety critical or weapon critical tasks, such as weapon release or lowering of the undercarriage, but is used for a wide range of other cockpit functions. Voice commands are confirmed by visual and/or aural feedback. The system is seen as a major design feature in the reduction of pilot workload, and even allows the pilot to assign targets to himself with two simple voice commands or to any of his wingmen with only five commands.

Helicopters

The problems of achieving high recognition accuracy under stress and noise pertain strongly to the helicopter environment as well as to the fighter environment. The acoustic noise problem is actually more severe in the helicopter environment, not only because of the high noise levels but also because the helicopter pilot generally does not wear a facemask, which would reduce acoustic noise in the microphone. Substantial test and evaluation programs have been carried out in the past decade in speech recognition systems applications in helicopters, notably by the U.S. Army Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and by the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE) in the UK. Work in France has included speech recognition in the Puma helicopter. There has also been much useful work in Canada. Results have been encouraging, and voice applications have included: control of communication radios; setting of navigation systems; and control of an automated target handover system.

As in fighter applications, the overriding issue for voice in helicopters is the impact on pilot effectiveness. Encouraging results are reported for the AVRADA tests, although these represent only a feasibility demonstration in a test environment. Much remains to be done both in speech recognition and in overall speech recognition technology, in order to consistently achieve performance improvements in operational settings.

Battle management

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Battle Management command centres generally require rapid access to and control of large, rapidly changing information databases. Commanders and system operators need to query these databases as conveniently as possible, in an eyes-busy environment where much of the information is presented in a display format. Human-machine interaction by voice has the potential to be very useful in these environments. A number of efforts have been undertaken to interface commercially available isolated-word recognizers into battle management environments. In one feasibility study speech recognition equipment was tested in conjunction with an integrated information display for naval battle management applications. Users were very optimistic about the potential of the system, although capabilities were limited.

Speech understanding programs sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the U.S. has focused on this problem of natural speech interface. Speech recognition efforts have focused on a database of continuous speech recognition (CSR), large-vocabulary speech which is designed to be representative of the naval resource management task. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art in CSR have been achieved, and current efforts are focused on integrating speech recognition and natural language processing to allow spoken language interaction with a naval resource management system.

Training air traffic controllers

Training for military (or civilian) air traffic controllers (ATC) represents an excellent application for speech recognition systems. Many ATC training systems currently require a person to act as a “pseudo-pilot”, engaging in a voice dialog with the trainee controller, which simulates the dialog which the controller would have to conduct with pilots in a real ATC situation. Speech recognition and synthesis techniques offer the potential to eliminate the need for a person to act as pseudo-pilot, thus reducing training and support personnel. Air controller tasks are also characterized by highly structured speech as the primary output of the controller, hence reducing the difficulty of the speech recognition task.

The U.S. Naval Training Equipment Center has sponsored a number of developments of prototype ATC trainers using speech recognition. Generally, the recognition accuracy falls short of providing graceful interaction between the trainee and the system. However, the prototype training systems have demonstrated a significant potential for voice interaction in these systems, and in other training applications. The U.S. Navy has sponsored a large-scale effort in ATC training systems, where a commercial speech recognition unit was integrated with a complex training system including displays and scenario creation. Although the recognizer was constrained in vocabulary, one of the goals of the training programs was to teach the controllers to speak in a constrained language, using specific vocabulary specifically designed for the ATC task. Research in France has focused on the application of speech recognition in ATC training systems, directed at issues both in speech recognition and in application of task-domain grammar constraints.

The USAF, USMC, US Army, and FAA are currently using ATC simulators with speech recognition from a number of different vendors, including UFA, Inc, and Adacel Systems Inc (ASI). This software uses speech recognition and synthetic speech to enable the trainee to control aircraft and ground vehicles in the simulation without the need for pseudo pilots.

Another approach to ATC simulation with speech recognition has been created by Supremis. The Supremis system is not constrained by rigid grammars imposed by the underlying limitations of other recognition strategies.

Telephony and other domains

ASR in the field of telephony is now commonplace and in the field of computer gaming and simulation is becoming more widespread. Despite the high level of integration with word processing in general personal computing, however, ASR in the field of document production has not seen the expected[by whom?] increases in use.

The improvement of mobile processor speeds made feasible the speech-enabled Symbian and Windows Mobile Smartphones. Speech is used mostly as a part of User Interface, for creating pre-defined or custom speech commands. Leading software vendors in this field are: Microsoft Corporation (Microsoft Voice Command), Nuance Communications (Nuance Voice Control), Vito Technology (VITO Voice2Go), Speereo Software (Speereo Voice Translator) and SVOX.

People with disabilities

People with disabilities can benefit from speech recognition programs. Speech recognition is especially useful for people who have difficulty using their hands, ranging from mild repetitive stress injuries to involved disabilities that preclude using conventional computer input devices. In fact, people who used the keyboard a lot and developed RSI became an urgent early market for speech recognition. Speech recognition is used in deaf telephony, such as voicemail to text, relay services, and captioned telephone. Individuals with learning disabilities who have problems with thought-to-paper communication (essentially they think of an idea but it is processed incorrectly causing it to end up differently on paper) can benefit from the software[citation needed].

This section requires expansion.

Further applications

Automatic translation;

Automotive speech recognition (e.g., Ford Sync);

Telematics (e.g. vehicle Navigation Systems);

Court reporting (Realtime Voice Writing);

Hands-free computing: voice command recognition computer user interface;

Home automation;

Interactive voice response;

Mobile telephony, including mobile email;

Multimodal interaction;

Pronunciation evaluation in computer-aided language learning applications;

Robotics;

Video games, with Tom Clancy’s EndWar and Lifeline as working examples;

Transcription (digital speech-to-text);

Speech-to-text (transcription of speech into mobile text messages);

Air Traffic Control Speech Recognition.

Performance of speech recognition systems

The performance of speech recognition systems is usually specified in terms of accuracy and speed. Accuracy may be measured in terms of performance accuracy which is usually rated with word error rate (WER), whereas speed is measured with the real time factor. Other measures of accuracy include Single Word Error Rate (SWER) and Command Success Rate (CSR).

Most speech recognition users would tend to agree that dictation machines can achieve very high performance in controlled conditions. There is some confusion, however, over the interchangeability of the terms “speech recognition” and “dictation”.

Commercially available speaker-dependent dictation systems usually require only a short period of training (sometimes also called `enrollment’) and may successfully capture continuous speech with a large vocabulary at normal pace with a very high accuracy. Most commercial companies claim that recognition software can achieve between 98% to 99% accuracy if operated under optimal conditions. `Optimal conditions’ usually assume that users:

have speech characteristics which match the training data,

can achieve proper speaker adaptation, and

work in a clean noise environment (e.g. quiet office or laboratory space).

This explains why some users, especially those whose speech is heavily accented, might achieve recognition rates much lower than expected. Speech recognition in video has become a popular search technology used by several video search companies.

Limited vocabulary systems, requiring no training, can recognize a small number of words (for instance, the ten digits) as spoken by most speakers. Such systems are popular for routing incoming phone calls to their destinations in large organizations.

Both acoustic modeling and language modeling are important parts of modern statistically-based speech recognition algorithms. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are widely used in many systems. Language modeling has many other applications such as smart keyboard and document classification.

Hidden Markov model (HMM)-based speech recognition

Main article: Hidden Markov model

Modern general-purpose speech recognition systems are generally based on Hidden Markov Models. These are statistical models which output a sequence of symbols or quantities. One possible reason why HMMs are used in speech recognition is that a speech signal could be viewed as a piecewise stationary signal or a short-time stationary signal. That is, one could assume in a short-time in the range of 10 milliseconds, speech could be approximated as a stationary process. Speech could thus be thought of as a Markov model for many stochastic processes.

Another reason why HMMs are popular is because they can be trained automatically and are simple and computationally feasible to use. In speech recognition, the hidden Markov model would output a sequence of n-dimensional real-valued vectors (with n being a small integer, such as 10), outputting one of these every 10 milliseconds. The vectors would consist of cepstral coefficients, which are obtained by taking a Fourier transform of a short time window of speech and decorrelating the spectrum using a cosine transform, then taking the first (most significant) coefficients. The hidden Markov model will tend to have in each state a statistical distribution that is a mixture of diagonal covariance Gaussians which will give a likelihood for each observed vector. Each word, or (for more general speech recognition systems), each phoneme, will have a different output distribution; a hidden Markov model for a sequence of words or phonemes is made by concatenating the individual trained hidden Markov models for the separate words and phonemes.

Described above are the core elements of the most common, HMM-based approach to speech recognition. Modern speech recognition systems use various combinations of a number of standard techniques in order to improve results over the basic approach described above. A typical large-vocabulary system would need context dependency for the phonemes (so phonemes with different left and right context have different realizations as HMM states); it would use cepstral normalization to normalize for different speaker and recording conditions; for further speaker normalization it might use vocal tract length normalization (VTLN) for male-female normalization and maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) for more general speaker adaptation. The features would have so-called delta and delta-delta coefficients to capture speech dynamics and in addition might use heteroscedastic linear discriminant analysis (HLDA); or might skip the delta and delta-delta coefficients and use splicing and an LDA-based projection followed perhaps by heteroscedastic linear discriminant analysis or a global semitied covariance transform (also known as maximum likelihood linear transform, or MLLT). Many systems use so-called discriminative training techniques which dispense with a purely statistical approach to HMM parameter estimation and instead optimize some classification-related measure of the training data. Examples are maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error (MCE) and minimum phone error (MPE).

Decoding of the speech (the term for what happens when the system is presented with a new utterance and must compute the most likely source sentence) would probably use the Viterbi algorithm to find the best path, and here there is a choice between dynamically creating a combination hidden Markov model which includes both the acoustic and language model information, or combining it statically beforehand (the finite state transducer, or FST, approach).

Dynamic time warping (DTW)-based speech recognition

Main article: Dynamic time warping

Dynamic time warping is an approach that was historically used for speech recognition but has now largely been displaced by the more successful HMM-based approach. Dynamic time warping is an algorithm for measuring similarity between two sequences which may vary in time or speed. For instance, similarities in walking patterns would be detected, even if in one video the person was walking slowly and if in another they were walking more quickly, or even if there were accelerations and decelerations during the course of one observation. DTW has been applied to video, audio, and graphics  indeed, any data which can be turned into a linear representation can be analyzed with DTW.

A well known application has been automatic speech recognition, to cope with different speaking speeds. In general, it is a method that allows a computer to find an optimal match between two given sequences (e.g. time series) with certain restrictions, i.e. the sequences are “warped” non-linearly to match each other. This sequence alignment method is often used in the context of hidden Markov models.

Further information

Popular speech recognition conferences held each year or two include ICASSP, Eurospeech/ICSLP (now named Interspeech) and the IEEE ASRU. Conferences in the field of Natural language processing, such as ACL, NAACL, EMNLP, and HLT, are beginning to include papers on speech processing. Important journals include the IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing (now named IEEE Transactions on Audio, Speech and Language Processing), Computer Speech and Language, and Speech Communication. Books like “Fundamentals of Speech Recognition” by Lawrence Rabiner can be useful to acquire basic knowledge but may not be fully up to date (1993). Another good source can be “Statistical Methods for Speech Recognition” by Frederick Jelinek and “Spoken Language Processing (2001)” by Xuedong Huang etc. More up to date is “Computer Speech”, by Manfred R. Schroeder, second edition published in 2004. The recently updated textbook of “Speech and Language Processing (2008)” by Jurafsky and Martin presents the basics and the state of the art for ASR. A good insight into the techniques used in the best modern systems can be gained by paying attention to government sponsored evaluations such as those organised by DARPA (the largest speech recognition-related project ongoing as of 2007 is the GALE project, which involves both speech recognition and translation components).

In terms of freely available resources, Carnegie Mellon University’s SPHINX toolkit is one place to start to both learn about speech recognition and to start experimenting. Another resource (free as in free beer, not free software) is the HTK book (and the accompanying HTK toolkit). The AT&T libraries GRM library, and DCD library are also general software libraries for large-vocabulary speech recognition.

A useful review of the area of robustness in ASR is provided by Junqua and Haton (1995).

See also

Audio mining

Audio visual speech recognition

Acoustic Model

Digital dictation

Direct Voice Input

Keyword spotting

List of speech recognition software

Microphone

Mondegreen

Multimodal interaction

OpenDocument

Phonetic search technology

Speech Analytics

Speaker identification

Speaker diarisation

Speech corpus

Speech processing

Speech recognition in Linux

Speech synthesis

Speech verification

Text-to-speech (TTS)

VoiceXML

Voxforge

Windows Speech Recognition

Speech technology

References

Karat, Clare-Marie; Vergo, John; Nahamoo, David (2007), “Conversational Interface Technologies”, in Sears, Andrew; Jacko, Julie A., The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications (Human Factors and Ergonomics), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc, ISBN 978-0805858709 .

managing editors Giovanni Battista Varile, Antonio Zampolli. (1997), Cole, Ronald; Mariani, Joseph; Uszkoreit, Hans et al., eds., Survey of the state of the art in human language technology, Cambridge Studies In Natural Language Processing, XIIIII, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-59277-1 .

Junqua, J.-C.; Haton, J.-P. (1995), Robustness in Automatic Speech Recognition: Fundamentals and Applications, Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-0792396468 .

^ Davies , K.H., Biddulph, R. and Balashek, S. (1952) Automatic Speech Recognition of Spoken Digits, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 24(6) pp.637 – 642

^ http://www.speech.kth.se/prod/publications/files/1664.pdf

^ Eurofighter Direct Voice Input

^ Opportunities for Advanced Speech Processing in Military Computer-Based Systems*

^ Speech recognition for disabled people

^ Friends international support group

External links

Speech Technology at the Open Directory Project

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Spanish-English/English-Spanish Medical Dictionary/Diccionario Medico Espanol-Ingles/Ingles-Espanol


$46.98


With the rapid growth of the Spanish-speaking population worldwide, this comprehensive communicator has become an indispensable resource for healthcare students and professionals everywhere. The Fourth Edition has been designed to give easier and faster access to nearly 23,000 comprehensive medical terms, technology-related medical terms, and medical abbreviations, plus definitions, translations, tips on pronunciation, signs and symptoms of common disorders, practical phrases used in daily communication with patients, and much more. Access to thePoint website featuring audio pronunciation glossary with Spanish audio, image bank, and appendices formatted as PDFs

Dictionary of Medical Terms


Dictionary of Medical Terms


$6.43


Thousands of medical, physiological, and health-related terms are listed alphabetically and described in plain, easy-to-understand English with minimal jargon. They include descriptions of diseases, symptoms, human anatomy, medications, and much more. This dictionary has been updated to incorporate recent medical findings and new medications. Charts and instructive line illustrations appear throughout the book, and a section of helpful appendices cover topics that include an illustrated overview of the human body, tables of commonly prescribed medications, common herbal medicines, and more.

Carols and Lullabies - Pronunciation Guide


Carols and Lullabies – Pronunciation Guide


$7.35


(Pronunciation Guide). By Conrad Susa (1935-). Audio CD. Published by E.C. Schirmer Publishing

Medical Terminology Specialties: A Medical Specialties Approach with Patient Records [With CDROM]


Medical Terminology Specialties: A Medical Specialties Approach with Patient Records [With CDROM]


$3.74


The renowned medical terminology experts Regina Masters and Barbara Gylys have created an exciting new learning package that approaches the study of medical terminology from a medical specialty point of view. Readers involved in a cardiovascular specialty, for example, learn terms as they relate to that specific area. This approach allows for immediate application and solidifies the learning of medical terms as no other approach can. The learning package consists of a text, an audio CD to practice accurate pronunciation, and the popular Interactive Medical Terminology 2.0, a feature-filled CD-ROM ISBN-13: 978-0-8036-1321-8 / ISBN-10: 0-8036-1321-0.Package of Medical Terminology Specialties: A Medical Specialties Approach with Patient Records with Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, 20th edition (indexed). $82.50. "This book goes into great detail. The specialty letters are great. Good clinical pictures. I like the Body Systems Connection – very clever. Very correct to ID primary and second lesions (derm). Good to have prescribed drugs relating to systems/specialties." — Holly Bennett, RBN, Comprehensive Medical Office Assistant Program, Amador Valley Adult Education, Pleasanton, California "This book seems to cover much of my requirements needed for the students to complete or meet competencies. I love the puzzles and CD for extra learning." — Cindy McNeal, LVN, Medical Assisting Program, Poway Unified – ROP, Carlsbad, California "I particularly liked the inclusion of medical records for the coding students." — Eleanor Ayers, BS, MLS, Herzing College – Lakeland Academy, Minneapolis, Minnesota "I think this Medical Terminology Specialties book will be very valuable to my medical assisting students. Love the CDs and the fact I can combine with Taber’s at a savings " — Becky Theis, RN, Vanguard Adult Career Center, Fremont, Ohio We recently discovered that MicrosoftA(R) made a correction to Windows A(R) Media Player 9.0, which could cause difficulty with the audio feedback on Interactive Medical Terminology 2.0 (IMT). To overcome this challenge, we designed a patch for you to download. Click here. Davis’s Medical Terminology Online is available with this text in the following formats:ISBN-13: 978-0-8036-1331-7 / ISBN-10: 0-8036-1331-8 . Masters: Med Term Online WebCT Packaged w/ Medical Terminology SpecialtiesISBN-13: 978-0-8036-1332-4 / ISBN-10: 0-8036-1332-6 . Masters: Med Term Online Blackboard Packaged w/ Medical Terminology Specialties

Primary Pronunciation Box: Pronunciation Games and Activities for Younger Learners [With CD (Audio)]


Primary Pronunciation Box: Pronunciation Games and Activities for Younger Learners [With CD (Audio)]


$55.35


This photocopiable resource book makes pronunciation in the primary classroom fun. As part of the Cambridge Copy Collection, each activity contains a clear, step-by-step lesson plan explaining how to set the activity up and carry it out in the classroom. * A wide variety of games and activities to encourage pupils to practise their pronunciation * Ready made lesson plans to save the teacher preparation time * Attractively illustrated * Activities can be slotted into any coursebook * Suitable for learners preparing for Cambridge Young Learners English Tests (Cambridge ESOL) * Over 60 fun-filled activities including rhymes, chants, poems, puzzles and games which make pronunciation enjoyable. * Fully supported by an audio CD.

Introduction to Medical Terminology with Student Audio CD-ROM


Introduction to Medical Terminology with Student Audio CD-ROM


$102.51


This text-workbook gives students a firm foundation in medical terminology meanings and pronunciations. It provides a concise presentation of terms reinforced by practice exercises. It can be used in a short course or a review course of medical terminology or as a self-paced text.

Medical Spanish Made Incredibly Easy!


Medical Spanish Made Incredibly Easy!


$41.75


Medical Spanish Made Incredibly Easy 3e provides conversational health-care-related Spanish words and phrases to help health care professionals communicate easily with Spanish-speaking patients, one of the fastest-growing patient populations. This guide features questions and instructions that cover health problems, history, and lifestyle for all body systems, plus medications, procedures, and nutrition. The book also includes a dictionary of key terms, a picture dictionary of common objects, basic rules of Spanish pronunciation and grammar, clear body-system illustrations with callouts in both languages, indexes in English and Spanish, and hundreds of accompanying audio files with correct pronunciations of medical terms in both English and Spanish. Useful in any clinical setting (including MD and NP offices; subacute, acute, and long-term-care facilities; school and community clinics; and the workplace), the book includes everything clinicians need to put Spanish-speaking patients at ease, aid diagnosis and treatment, and improve compliance. "Doody’s Core Titles(TM) 2009."

Stedman's Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing, Illustrated


Stedman’s Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing, Illustrated


$3.95


The Fifth Edition of this popular medical dictionary is thoroughly updated with more than 51,000 entries, featuring more of the medical terminology used in over 30 of today’s fastest growing health profession areas. You’ll also find more comprehensive inclusion of entries suited for the Nursing field, with correct terminology for all Nursing students and practitioners. Features include: / More than 4,000 new terms totaling 51,000 terms / More than 900 enriched color images and photographs add clarity and emphasis to terms / Detailed images by Anatomical Chart Company, included in a special glossy insert, enhance the comprehension of anatomical terms / 65 valuable appendices covering 11 sections / New precision-cut thumb tabs enable quick A-to-Z reference / Written pronunciations for every term help you master usage quickly / Eye-catching icons help identify terms that have associated images, have an audio pronunciation, or are combining forms / More British alternative spellings / More than 40 leading consultants from the fastest growing nursing and health professions contributed to the enhancements of this latest edition In addition, the Bonus CD-ROM packaged with the book includes all the features of the print edition and: / An audio pronunciation for nearly every term / Anatomical animations provided by Primal Pictures to help you comprehend key concepts further / And the functionality you need: o Browse by Index/Wordwheel Search o Wildcard Search o Search in Definition o User Dictionary o Free 14 day Primal Anatomy DVD packaged in the back of the dictionary with Interactive Functional Anatomy Also available for PDA.

Medical Spanish: A Conversational Approach (with Audio CD) [With CD (Audio)]


Medical Spanish: A Conversational Approach (with Audio CD) [With CD (Audio)]


$148.01


This beginning-level program prepares health care professionals to better communicate with Spanish-speaking patients. Technical material, medical terminology, and grammatical terms are integrated into realistic, situational-based dialogues and accompanying exercises.

Cengage Learning 1401879195 Illustrated Guide to Medical Terminology  Book with CD ROM  MultimedAudio


Cengage Learning 1401879195 Illustrated Guide to Medical Terminology Book with CD ROM MultimedAudio


$91.53


Illustrated Guide to Medical Terminology makes learning medical terminology enjoyable for everyone The unique approach of this book makes learning easy and its genius lies in its simplicity: Read look and listen in order to speak and write . Specifically it asks you to read the text view diagrams write structure names complete review exercises listen to and repeat correct pronunciation of terms using the Free Audio CDROM and finally write terms down on paper. This wellillustrated book is ideal for English as a second language learners as well as visual and auditory learners. Edition # 1. Page Count # 512. Binding: PB. Author: Juanita J. Davies

Medical Terminology Essentials: W/Student & Audio CD's and Flashcards


Medical Terminology Essentials: W/Student & Audio CD’s and Flashcards


$95.3


Essentials of Medical Terminology is a precise, completely up-to-date, student-oriented text that is ideal for the one-semester course in Medical Terminology. The text emphasizes real world applications of the vocabulary of medicine, and students will see current medical events reflected in this book. The main text is accompanied by an outstanding selection of supplementary learning resources. Essentials of Medical Terminology concentrates on just the key terms and concepts that can be taught in a half-year course. Its clean, uncluttered design keeps readers’ attention focused on learning these basic terms, and definitions are kept concise. The interactive Essentials of Medical Terminology Student CD-ROM, and Audio Program CD-ROMs (2-disk audio CD set), linked directly to the text and its selection of terms, are included with each copy of the text. They provide a powerful suite of learning tools geared to the diverse learning styles of today’s students. A Spanish-English Audio CD-ROM is also available for student purchase. The Student CD-ROM is set up by text chapter, and includes a variety of games and skill-building activities such as key terms with audio, flash cards, word building, multiple choice and true/false questions, matching, crossword puzzles, and a game called "That’s Epidemic." A progress review component records and prints student progress reports. The CD-ROM is ideal for reviewing terms, for group activities, and for courses that have a self-study component.

Essentials of Medical Terminology [With CD]


Essentials of Medical Terminology [With CD]


$85.56


No prior exposure to medical terms? No problem Designed for short medical terminology courses, this essentials-level learning resource uses simple language you can understand. Organized by body system, early chapters help you learn the foundation of medical word building with a basic analysis of medical terms, common anatomical roots, suffixes, and prefixes. Body system chapters present anatomy and physiology, terminology, common diseases, pronunciation, and abbreviations. Have fun while learning by taking quizzes, playing interactive games, and watching animations on the StudyWARE CD-ROM

Introduction to Medical Terminology [With CDROM]


Introduction to Medical Terminology [With CDROM]


$86.97


Designed for the beginning health care student, Introduction to Medical Terminology, Second Edition, simplifies the process of learning hundreds of complex medical terms. The See and Say pronunciation system makes pronouncing unfamiliar terms easy. Because word parts are integral to learning medical terminology, mastery of these abuilding blocksa is emphasized in every chapter. Organized by body system, chapters begin with an overview of the structures and functions of that system so you can relate these to the specialties, pathology, diagnostic, and treatment procedures that follow. A workbook offers word part and comprehensive medical terminology reviews, flashcards, and learning exercises in a variety of formats that require written answers.

Medical Terminology: A Programmed Approach [With CDROMWith Flashcards]


Medical Terminology: A Programmed Approach [With CDROMWith Flashcards]


$5.93


Medical Terminology: A Programmed Approach is the ideal resource for instructors and students wanting a concise and systematic approach to learning the language of health care. Recognizing that students learn medical terminology by constructing and deconstructing words into their parts, the authors have built this process into the text and the numerous exercises. The approach builds and constantly reinforces skills needed to deal with increasingly complicated terms. A body systems organization is used, providing a clear content framework for the text. Each body system chapter separates words into easily learnable groups: major parts of each system; word parts related to each system; and diagnostic, pathological, surgical and pharmacological terms. Carefully chosen chapter features help bring the subject to life, and add an on-the-job perspective. Case-study information is built into examples, and real medical documents are used whenever appropriate. Internet references are included throughout to emphasize the importance of online resources and tools. While most activities are straight-forward practice exercises, word-building and critical thinking skills are also built in. Wherever possible, material on Complementary and Alternative Medicine ("CAM") is included to highlight this growing area of medicine. In addition to the text, students can access a wealth of electronic resources to aid their studies: The Student CD-ROM includes a suite of activity-based learning tools: crossword puzzles, "Hangman" game, "Concentration," term to definition matching, audio feedback, and "That’s Epidemic," an activity focusing on pathology terms. Exercises are gradable online, or can be used for self-paced review. The Online Learning Center website ("OLC") provides a set of additional self-test questions; chapter study outlines; web links of interest; and additional word-building activities. An optional Spanish/English audio CD ROM is available, which includes pronunciations of key medical terms in both languages. English-language audio CD ROMs (2) are also available as an optional package item; these include pronunciation of all terms included in the text. Instructors will also finds a wealth of teaching & learning resources for their classes: The Instructor’s Manual ("IM") contains answers to all exercises, teaching strategy suggestions, and discussion of word-building techniques. The Instructor Productivity Center CD ROM ("IPC") contains the IM in electronic form; PowerPoint presentations for each chapter; and electronic test generator and test banks (with 300 questions).

Medical Terminology for Health Professions


Medical Terminology for Health Professions


$3.72


A proven and unique combination of learning principles and exercises, this widely respected book continues to get better Medical Terminology for Health Professions, Fifth Edition, simplifies the process of learning hundreds of difficult, complex medical terms. The see and say pronunciation system makes pronouncing unfamiliar terms easy. Because word parts are such an important aspect of learning medical terminology, mastery of these building blocks is emphasized throughout the book. Organized by body system, chapters begin with an overview of the structures and functions of that system so you can relate these to specialty, pathology, diagnostic, and treatment procedures that follow.

Layman's Terms: The Humorous Guide to Medical Misinterpretation


Layman’s Terms: The Humorous Guide to Medical Misinterpretation


$18.71


Forget everything you’ve learned of medical terminology "Layman’s Terms: The Humorous Guide to Medical Misinterpretation" introduces a whole new medical language as patients, family members, and even healthcare workers give their version of the "doctor talk." From "ammonia" (pneumonia) to "chex populations" (chest palpitations) Layman’s Terms serves as your guide to hundreds of medical malapropisms, misspellings, and humorous quotations. Highlights include: – Almost 400 translations of misinterpreted medical terms – Humorous definitions and clinical indicators – Weird medical treatments – Includes original "research" – Perfectly sized for a lab-coat pocket – Brings some humor to a boring shift or rotation – More funny and less helpful than a medical dictionary Perfect for both the healthcare student and veteran medical provider, "Layman’s Terms" is your "subscription" (prescription) for a healthy dose of laughter.

Audio CD-ROMs for Dennerll/Davis' Medical Terminology: A Programmed Systems Approach, 10th


Audio CD-ROMs for Dennerll/Davis’ Medical Terminology: A Programmed Systems Approach, 10th


$79.6


Three audio CDs to accompany Medical Terminology: A Programmed Systems Approach, Tenth Edition, present over 3 ? hours of the most commonly accepted English pronunciations of medical terms. The CDs include specific frame references, and pronunciations of most terms are presented in unit order. The audio CDs are designed to allow learners to listen to the term, pronounce it aloud, and in many cases hear the term used in context or defined. The audio CDs may also be used as dictation by listening to the term, writing the word, an then checking the spelling of the terms in the book.

Berlitz English Pronunciation Program [With CD]


Berlitz English Pronunciation Program [With CD]


$15.59


The Berlitz English Pronunciation Program introduces sounds, stress, rhythm, and intonation in Standard American English. It features sounds in context and uses a listen and repeat approach for maximum practice of basic pronunciation skills. Sounds are stressed in familiar words and sentences to facilitate learning. Consisting of a 70-pg. book and one 70-min. audio cassette, it’s the ideal learning experience for non-native English speakers wishing to improve their pronunciation.

Stedman's Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing, Fifth Edition (Custom Version)


Stedman’s Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing, Fifth Edition (Custom Version)


$3.95


The Fifth Edition of this popular medical dictionary is thoroughly updated with more than 51,000 entries, featuring more of the medical terminology used in over 30 of today’s fastest growing health profession areas. You’ll also find more comprehensive inclusion of entries suited for the Nursing field, with correct terminology for all Nursing students and practitioners. Features include: / More than 4,000 new terms totaling 51,000 terms / More than 900 enriched color images and photographs add clarity and emphasis to terms / Detailed images by Anatomical Chart Company, included in a special glossy insert, enhance the comprehension of anatomical terms / 65 valuable appendices covering 11 sections / New precision-cut thumb tabs enable quick A-to-Z reference / Written pronunciations for every term help you master usage quickly / Eye-catching icons help identify terms that have associated images, have an audio pronunciation, or are combining forms / More British alternative spellings / More than 40 leading consultants from the fastest growing nursing and health professions contributed to the enhancements of this latest edition In addition, the Bonus CD-ROM packaged with the book includes all the features of the print edition and: / An audio pronunciation for nearly every term / Anatomical animations provided by Primal Pictures to help you comprehend key concepts further / And the functionality you need: o Browse by Index/Wordwheel Search o Wildcard Search o Search in Definition o User Dictionary Also available for PDA.

Medical Terms for Nurses: A Quick Reference Guide


Medical Terms for Nurses: A Quick Reference Guide


$4.95


Features: *3400 medical words and word components including common prefixes and suffixes *alphabetical listing of all terms for ready reference *illustrations of body systems *common diseases with signs, symptoms, and treatments *diagnostic and surgical procedures *up-to-date medical vocabulary *side-of-page shading for easy navigation

Ship or Sheep?: An Intermediate Pronunciation Course


Ship or Sheep?: An Intermediate Pronunciation Course


$25.37


This is a revised and updated edition of the classic pronunciation title Ship or Sheep? This new edition of Ship or Sheep?, an accessible intermediate-level pronunciation course in full colour for students of English, provides systematic practice of English pronunciation, with an emphasis on minimal pairs, through a wide variety of interesting exercises and activities. The course is suitable for classroom use or for self-study and is available accompanied by a set of 4 audio CDs in a pack or separately as a book. This ISBN refers to the book only. For information on the book and CD pack, please see 978 0 521 60673 8.

Cengage Learning 1111543275 Medical Terminology for Health Professions with Studyware CDROM  Book with CD ROM  MultimedAudio


Cengage Learning 1111543275 Medical Terminology for Health Professions with Studyware CDROM Book with CD ROM MultimedAudio


$135.25


Use a proven combination of learning principles and exercises to make learning medical terminology easier . Now in its 7th Edition MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY FOR HEALTH PROFESSIONS simplifies the process of memorizing complex medical terminology by focusing on the important word parts the common prefixes suffixes and root words to provide a foundation for learning hundreds of medical terms. Organized by body systems the chapters begin with an overview of the terminology related to the body s structures and functions then proceed through diseases and disorders and finally diagnostic procedures and treatments. This helps students master the necessary language to describe how the human body works what goes wrong with it and how we treat it. Every chapter engages learners with the See and Say pronunciation system interactive exercises real life medical scenarios and critical thinking exercises. An updated art program includes illustrations that reflect the latest terms and procedures and multicultural /multigenerational photos that accurately portray today s medical world. Builtin multimedia is included with the text on the StudyWare CDROM. This resource is packed full of activities that engage student with games quizzes animations and an audio glossary ultimately helping students study prepare for exams and achieve success . Optional workbook and online courseware is also available. Edition # 7. Page Count # 688. Binding: SP. Author: Ann Ehrlich Carol L. Schroeder

Stedman's Pocket Medical Dictionary


Stedman’s Pocket Medical Dictionary


$7.25


This pocket edition features more than 38,000 terms drawn from Stedman’s Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing, Sixth Edition and Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, Twenty-Eighth Edition, providing a complete and comprehensive reference in a portable size. A-to-Z organization facilitates quick look-up of definitions. Written pronunciations assist in spoken communications. Eye-catching icons identify terms that are combining forms. British alternative spellings are included. A FREE download provides users a fully searchable electronic version of the complete dictionary, as well as nine appendices, over 650 images, audio pronunciations for more than 34,000 terms, and 42 anatomical videos.

English and Spanish Medical Words and Phrases


English and Spanish Medical Words and Phrases


$3.95


This reference organizes words and phrases according to body system, then alphabetically by chief sign or symptom. Included are common terms and phrases and the correct Spanish pronunciation for many commonly used English words.

The New American Medical Dictionary and Health Manual


The New American Medical Dictionary and Health Manual


$3.95


Approximately two-thirds of the book presents some 10,000 definitions of medical terms directed towards the non-specialist. The final third of the book presents information on basic first aid, anatomy, poison control, temperature, pulse rates, weight, and other topics for home reference. Lacks pronunciation guidelines.

Medical Terminology: Get Connected!


Medical Terminology: Get Connected!


$56.94


This is a true introductory-level "essentials" text focusing solely on medical terminology, and on teaching students how to build and translate medical terms with confidence. Designed to be fun, accessible, and eye-catching, its powerful approach guides students step-by-step through mastering relevant word parts, understanding word roots, and word assembly. To help students learn meanings, correct spelling, pronunciation, and other components of each term, the book contains numerous exercises, tips, and colorful figures for learning and practice. It is flexible enough to be used either in support of lectures, or as an independent student workbook. "MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY: GET CONNECTED "encourages students to "get connected" to an engaging multimedia assessment experience on www.MyMedicalTerminologyLab.com. This powerful website in combination with the book is ideal for helping students see how word parts connect to form medical terms and how anatomical parts connect to form body systems. With engaging features throughout the book is designed to "connect" with readers – helping them understand the interconnectedness of the elements that lead to the mastery of medical terminology.

Targeting Pronunciation: Communicating Clearly in English


Targeting Pronunciation: Communicating Clearly in English


$48.04


"Targeting Pronunciation" uses a communicative, interactive approach to help intermediate and advanced ESL students communicate effectively and clearly in English. This up-to-date text makes pronunciation easy to teach and fun to learn. It features a complete diagnostic package for setting individual priorities and goals. Through a variety of engaging listening and speaking activities, partner practice exercises, role plays, and dialogues, students increase their confidence and command of English speech. Home assignments provide practice beyond the classroom to help students become independent by improving their self-monitoring skills and their ability to correct their own errors.Self-quizzes at the end of each chapter reinforce students' understanding of chapter material.Additional authentic speech samples, including interesting public service announcements, link pronunciation targets to real speakers.An array of web activities with audio keyed to each chapter that students use independently to test and expand their grasp of pronunciation features."Join the Chorus" and "Sing Along" activities feature songs, poetry, and chants help students master English speech rhythm and intonation."Talk Times" communicative activities, planned by students in the classroom and executed outside, facilitate the transfer of pronunciation targets to real-life situations.

An Introduction to the Pronunciation of North American English


An Introduction to the Pronunciation of North American English


$54.1


This introductory book is tailored for a one or two term undergraduate course on North American English pronunciation. The book assumes no prior knowledge of the study of speech sounds, but guides the reader step-by-step through the main concepts and methods of a phonetic and phonological analysis of a representative North American English variety. After a brief introduction to the history of English in North America, the first of the book’s three parts deals with the classification and description of individual consonants and vowels. The second part is concerned with issues such as word stress, syllables, rhythm, and intonation. The third part has variation and change as topics, both optional present-day and historical variations, and concludes with an outline of the main regional dialects in North America. Offering comprehensive knowledge on all aspects of North American English pronunciation, the book is also aided by a concise summary, followed by a list for further reading and an index to help the reader find all the important terms.

Medical Dictionary: A Concise and Up-To-Date Guide to Medical Terms


Medical Dictionary: A Concise and Up-To-Date Guide to Medical Terms


$3.95


The Compact American Medical Dictionary is an important new reference book for those who need a better understanding of health and who want to make knowledgeable decisions on personal health-care issues. Incorporating features of the best-selling American Heritage(R) dictionaries, it defines up-to-date medical terms in an easy-to-understand, comprehensive manner. It’s more than 10,000 entries address all areas of medicine and health. In addition, clear, useful drawings and charts detail aspects of the human anatomy as well as vital preventative health and wellness information.

The Pronunciation of English: A Course Book


The Pronunciation of English: A Course Book


$41.07


This revised second edition provides an introduction to the phonetics and phonology of English. It incorporates all central aspects of research in the phonology of English and involves the reader at every step, with over 80 exercises leading students to discover facts, to formulate general statements, and to apply concepts. Discusses the nature of speech and phonetic description, the principles of phonological analysis, the consonants and vowels of English and their possible sequences. Provides extensive treatment of rhythm, stress, and intonation and the role of these prosodic elements in discourse. Includes more than 80 exercises with feedback and glossary of technical terms. Incorporates developments in phonology since the first edition appeared.

Tree or Three?: An Elementary Pronunciation Course


Tree or Three?: An Elementary Pronunciation Course


$25.52


This fully-revised edition of the classic elementary pronunciation course is now accompanied by 3 Audio CDs and is suitable for both self-study and classroom use. This is a revised and updated edition of the classic pronunciation title, ‘Tree or Three?’. This new edition retains many of the features that make the original edition so popular. In particular, the overall simplicity of the text and straightforward syllabus with an emphasis on minimal pairs, that makes the subject of pronunciation so accessible has been retained. Although the artwork remains simple, this new edition is in full colour to make the material more user-friendly. Still ideal for classroom use, the new edition is also more suitable for learners working on their own (at home or in self-access centres), as clearer rubrics for exercises have been included together with better overall navigation and a clear answer key. Unlike the original edition, there is no separate Teacher’s Book. This ISBN refers to the book only. For information on the book and CD pack, please see 978 0 521 685276.

Ship or Sheep?: An Intermediate Pronunciation Course [With 4 CDs]


Ship or Sheep?: An Intermediate Pronunciation Course [With 4 CDs]


$36.83


This is a revised and updated edition of the classic pronunciation title Ship or Sheep? This new edition of Ship or Sheep?, an accessible intermediate-level pronunciation course in full colour for students of English, provides systematic practice of English pronunciation, with an emphasis on minimal pairs, through a wide variety of interesting exercises and activities. The course is suitable for classroom use or for self-study. This pack contains the 3rd edition of Ship or Sheep? and a set of 4 audio CDs. For information on the book only, please see 978 0 521 60671 4.

Teaching Pronunciation: A Course Book and Reference Guide [With CDROM]


Teaching Pronunciation: A Course Book and Reference Guide [With CDROM]


$114.49


The timely second edition includes updates and insights on current research and pedagogical practice that have developed over the last decade. This new edition of Teaching Pronunciation – undoubtedly the gold standard for pronunciation methodology texts – has been revised to reflect recent research into the sound system of North American English, as well as new practices in pronunciation pedagogy. Audio CDs with additional examples are now packaged with the book.


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