Ethical Issues In Medical Research

Jan 12, 2013

ethical issues in medical research
What are some of the ethical issues involving pharmaceuticals?

Most fields of science have ethical issues involved. Cloning, stem cell research, abortion, and genetic manipulation are just a few of the scientific things we can do that are often debated in our society. Are there any issues like the above in the Pharmaceutical field? Thanks!!

There’s a couple of big ones. One of the major, major ones is the cost involved.

I’ll have to disagree with above. It takes about two billion, average, to get a drug approved in the US. It takes 800 million, minimum to get that drug into Phase II testing. This is a staggering amount of money. And the sheer cost of it complicates the development of drugs for rarer disease states. Orphan drug laws help this, but this is the level of safety and efficacy we demand presently.

Another big one is direct to consumer advertising of drugs. Essentially every country with a large health care industry has banned this practice or restricted it severely (you can’t mention a drug name for example). It adds enormously to the cost of drugs, to the burden those drugs place on health care. Patients show up to their doctors demanding said drugs, self diagnosing, and essentially harassing the doctor until it’s given – regardless of wether or not it’s needed or appropriate. Drug therapy is extremely complex, and your average person does not have the expertise to approach it.

Unethical conduct by drug companies – by and large has drastically fallen off after the Neurontin lawsuits which resulted in a whopping 800 million dollar fine. There’s only one company that has blatant, egregious violations these days, and that’s Eli Lilly. The amount of damage the lawsuits pay out simply isn’t enough to stop the abuse that goes on with certain drugs. By and large, most other drug companies stringently manage their ethics and behavior. There’s a ‘business’ group of pharma companies that has layed down some incredibly strict rules about practices by drug companies that are considered unethical just in the last year. By and large, this has severely curtailed some of the more blatant problems.

Government interference in pharmaceutical application and Medical data. By and large, the government mucking around with science doesn’t work – the system isn’t set up to put up with it. Word gets out, scandal breaks out and essentially every major effort to repress medical knowledge has crumbled. As another poster mentions, the Morning After Pill was known to be safe for… over 20 years. No one, not one person, has ever died from it, or ever had a life threatening complication. It has one of the single best safety records of any medicine ever created. Yet it was lobbied against and choked at for decades by the government and religious groups in America because of the thought that it’s an abortion. Even when the theoretical risk of ‘interfering with implantation’ was evaluated and understood: one study put the potential of this happening at greater than 1:200,000,000 and happening through the same mechanism as ibuprofen, and COXIB antinflammatory drugs this fact was ignored. Nevermind that a failed implantation isn’t an abortion. Nevermind that between 50 and 75% of fertilized eggs fail to implant in the healthiest person on the planet. This fact was ignored and deprived millions of Americans of easy access to safe healthcare for years.

Oh yes. And price controls are needed. Things are getting a little nutty.

Ethical Issues in Nursing Series: Protection


Ethical Issues in International Biomedical Research: A Casebook


Ethical Issues in International Biomedical Research: A Casebook


$20.00


Ethical Issues in International Biomedical Research is the definitive book on the ethics of research involving human subjects in developing countries. Using 21 actual case studies, it covers the most controversial topics, including the ethics of placebo research in Africa, what benefits should be provided to the community after completion of a research trial, how to address conflicts between IRBs…

Ethical Issues in Clinical Research: A Practical Guide


Ethical Issues in Clinical Research: A Practical Guide


$30.38


This book teaches researchers how to resolve the ethical dilemmas that can arise at any stage in clinical research. In addition to explaining pertinent regulations and laws, Dr. Lo helps investigators understand the gaps and uncertainties in regulations, as well as situations in which merely complying with the law may not fulfill ethical responsibilities. Most chapters include real-life examples t…

Ethical Issues of Human Genetic Databases (Medical Law and Ethics)


Ethical Issues of Human Genetic Databases (Medical Law and Ethics)


$99.00


Following the boom in population databases in recent years there has been sustained and intense international debate about political processes and legal and ethical issues surrounding the protection and use of genetic data. As a result, several national and international organizations and committees have published widely differing guidelines and statements concerning genetic databases and biobanks…

Nursing Research: Ethical and Legal Appraisal


Nursing Research: Ethical and Legal Appraisal


$3.95


A multi-contributed book that uniquely addresses important ethical issues in nursing research. Features the work of expert authors, and an appendix on the Helsinki Declaration of the World Medical Association.

Ethical Issues in Biomedical Publication


Ethical Issues in Biomedical Publication


$8.34


When the editors of two of the most prominent medical journals in the world — the New England Journal of Medicine and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) — were fired in the same year, under circumstances that ranged from acrimonious to politically sensational, media attention again focused on biomedical publication. The controversy highlighted yet another ethical dimension of scientific research and its publication, topics that have generated intense scrutiny in recent years. As research funding has become scarcer and competition fiercer, with links between scientific discovery and commercial applications increasingly tighter and more lucrative, allegations of misconduct have also increased. Universities and research institutions, notably the NIH, have created offices of scientific integrity and mandated educational programs to investigate such allegations and to train researchers in the highest standards of sound, ethical scientific research. Focusing on publication ethics as an essential aspect of responsible scientific conduct, Ethical Issues in Biomedical Publication examines a variety of troublesome issues, including authorship, peer review, repetitive publication, conflict of interest, and electronic publishing. The contributors include the editors of distinguished biomedical journals (among them, past or present editors of Academic Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, JAMA, and the Lancet), humanities scholars, scientists, lawyers, and a university administrator. Chapters address specific ethical issues and offer recommendations for preventing or solving problems associated with them. The result is a book that will serve as a standard reference for biomedical researchers, authors, editors, and teachers of research ethics. "Educators, administrators, scientists, editors, and students should all welcome this comprehensive new book. Anne Hudson Jones and Faith McLellan have gathered a veritable who’s who in the field of publication ethics for biomedical research. All those with a stake in biomedical research will surely want this volume on their bookshelf." — from the Foreword by Jordan J. Cohen, M.D., President, Association of American Medical Colleges

Ethical Issues in Cancer Patient Care


Ethical Issues in Cancer Patient Care


$7.04


This updated edition addresses a variety of ethical issues that arise in the care of oncology patients. Many volumes have been written on medical ethics in the past 30 years. However, few have focused on ethical issues specific to cancer care. This book brings together such a focused examination. The contributors include clinicians, ethicists, medical humanists and medical educators. The issues raised have direct relevance to the care of oncology patients in treatment, as well as research settings. The chapters address issues that are central to contemporary medical practice and medical ethics inquiry. "Ethical Issues in Cancer Patient Care, Second Edition" will have direct importance for clinicians, nurses, and others caring for cancer patients. In addition, medical students, medical educators and ethicists will find this book of interest.

Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research


Ethical Issues in Human Stem Cell Research


$32.34


In November 1998, President Clinton charged the National Bioethics Advisory Commission with the task of conducting a thorough review of the issues associated with human stem cell research, balancing all ethical and medical considerations. The President’s request was made in response to three separate reports that brought to the fore the exciting scientific and clinical prospects of stem cell research while also raising a series of ethical controversies regarding federal sponsorship of scientific inquiry in this area. Scientific reports of the successful isolation and culture of these specialized cells have offered hope of new cures for debilitating and even fatal illness and at the same time have renewed an important national debate about the ethics of research involving human embryos and cadaveric fetal material. The stem cell is a unique and essential cell type found in animals. Many kinds of stem cells are found in the body, with some more differentiated, or committed, to a particular function than others. In other words, when stem cells divide, some of the progeny mature into cells of a specific type (e.g., heart, muscle, blood, or brain cells), while others remain stem cells, ready to repair some of the everyday wear and tear undergone by our bodies. These stem cells are capable of continually reproducing themselves and serve to renew tissue throughout an individual’s life. For example, they constantly regenerate the lining of the gut, revitalize skin, and produce a whole range of blood cells. Although the term stem cell commonly is used to refer to the cells within the adult organism that renew tissue (e.g., hematopoietic stem cells, a type of cell found in the blood), the mostfundamental and extraordinary of the stem cells are found in the early stage embryo. These embryonic stem (ES) cells, unlike the more differentiated adult stem cells or other cell types, retain the special ability to develop into nearly any cell type. Embryonic germ (EG) cells, which originate from the primordial reproductive cells of the developing fetus, have properties similar to ES cells. It is the potentially unique versatility of the ES and EG cells derived, respectively, from the early stage embryo and cadaveric fetal tissue that presents such unusual scientific and therapeutic promise. Indeed, scientists have long recognized the possibility of using such cells to generate more specialized cells or tissue, which could allow the generation of new cells to be used to treat injuries or diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, heart disease, and kidney failure. Likewise, scientists regard these cells as an important— perhaps essential—means for understanding the earliest stages of human development and as an important tool in the development of life-saving drugs and cell-replacement therapies to treat disorders caused by early cell death or impairment.

Ethical Issues in Behavioral Research: Basic and Applied Perspectives


Ethical Issues in Behavioral Research: Basic and Applied Perspectives


$62.42


With concerns rising over the ethical dimensions of behavioral research and the developments in ethical codification and the research review process, "Ethical Issues in Behavioral Research" looks at the research community’s response to the ethical challenges that arise in the application of research approaches. Focuses on ethical and legal aspects of participant research on the internet Presents a practical framework for ethical decision making Discusses the revised ethical principles and code of conduct of the American Psychological Association A new chapter detailing ethical issues in marketing and opinion research, including a contrast of market and academic research and a summary of the author’s research comparing ethical trends in psychology and marketing fields Offers in-depth coverage of recent ethical developments outside of the United States including an update of the survey of the international codes of ethics and recommendations for avoiding ethical pitfalls encountered in cross-national research Includes a list of useful internet links devoted to ethical issues in research Includes a Foreword by Herbert C. Kelman

Stem Cell Research: Medical Applications and Ethical Controversy


Stem Cell Research: Medical Applications and Ethical Controversy


$4.6


Stem Cell Research is a comprehensive and interesting introduction to this popular new science for non-experts. This book covers all the fundamental aspects of stem cell research in an easy-to-follow manner. It presents the questions surrounding the use of embryonic cells in a clear and balanced format while bringing readers up to date on the latest technological advances, applications, and issues regarding stem cell research.

Stem Cell Research: The Ethical Issues


Stem Cell Research: The Ethical Issues


$29.1


In this timely collection, some of the world’s leading ethicists grapple with the variety of issues posed by human embryonic stem cell research. Investigates the moral status of the embryo including the creation of chimeras and paying for gametes (eggs and sperm) and embryos for research purposes Provides a thorough evaluation of the ethics and politics of regulating hESC research, and the privacy, confidentiality, and informed consent in the conduct of research and clinical investigations Essential reading for scientists, philosophers, policy makers, and all who are interested in the ethical conduct of science Contributors include David DeGrazia, Lori Gruen, Elizabeth Harman, John Harris, Jeff McMahan, Don Marquis and Peter Singer

Emerging Ethical Issues of Life in Virtual Worlds (Hc)


Emerging Ethical Issues of Life in Virtual Worlds (Hc)


$99.82


A volume in Research in Management Education and DevelopmentSeries Editors: Charles Wankel, St. John’s UniversityVirtual Worlds are being increasingly used in business and education. With each day more people are venturinginto computer generated online persistent worlds such as Second Life for increasingly diverse reasons such ascommerce, education, research, and entertainment. This book explores the emerging ethical issues associatedwith these novel environments for human interaction and cutting-edge approaches to these new ethicalproblems. This volume’s goal is to put forward a number of these virtual world ethical issues of which researchis only commencing. The developing literature specifically regarding virtual world ethics is a recentphenomenon. Research based on the phenomenon of virtual world life has only been developing in the past fouryears. This volume introduces pathbreaking work in a field which is only just beginning to take shape. It is ideal as both as a library reference and asupplementary text in upper-division courses focused on the issues of applied ethics and new media. It is unique in being one of the first volumesspecifically addressed to ethical problems of the "metaverse."This volume includes articles from authors from around the world exploring topics such as: employing rationalist and casuistic approaches to thecontroversial topic of "virtual rape" yield an increased understanding of how virtual worlds ought to be designed, the relationship between the ethicaland legal dimensions of virtual world users’ participation in "paratexts," utilitarian consideration of harm and freedom in the case of virtual pedophilia, norms of research ethics in virtual worlds, the ethical implications of employing virtual worlds as tools for medical education and experimenting withhealthcare services, the ethics of the collective action of virtual world communities, consideration of the virtue and potential of cosmopolitanism invirtual worlds, Deleuzian ethical approaches to the experience of the disabled in virtual worlds, the ethics of virtual world design, and the ethicalimplications of the "illusion of reality" presented by virtual worlds.

Emerging Ethical Issues of Life in Virtual Worlds (PB)


Emerging Ethical Issues of Life in Virtual Worlds (PB)


$65.13


A volume in Research in Management Education and DevelopmentSeries Editors: Charles Wankel, St. John’s UniversityVirtual Worlds are being increasingly used in business and education. With each day more people are venturinginto computer generated online persistent worlds such as Second Life for increasingly diverse reasons such ascommerce, education, research, and entertainment. This book explores the emerging ethical issues associatedwith these novel environments for human interaction and cutting-edge approaches to these new ethicalproblems. This volume’s goal is to put forward a number of these virtual world ethical issues of which researchis only commencing. The developing literature specifically regarding virtual world ethics is a recentphenomenon. Research based on the phenomenon of virtual world life has only been developing in the past fouryears. This volume introduces pathbreaking work in a field which is only just beginning to take shape. It is ideal as both as a library reference and asupplementary text in upper-division courses focused on the issues of applied ethics and new media. It is unique in being one of the first volumesspecifically addressed to ethical problems of the "metaverse."This volume includes articles from authors from around the world exploring topics such as: employing rationalist and casuistic approaches to thecontroversial topic of "virtual rape" yield an increased understanding of how virtual worlds ought to be designed, the relationship between the ethicaland legal dimensions of virtual world users’ participation in "paratexts," utilitarian consideration of harm and freedom in the case of virtual pedophilia, norms of research ethics in virtual worlds, the ethical implications of employing virtual worlds as tools for medical education and experimenting withhealthcare services, the ethics of the collective action of virtual world communities, consideration of the virtue and potential of cosmopolitanism invirtual worlds, Deleuzian ethical approaches to the experience of the disabled in virtual worlds, the ethics of virtual world design, and the ethicalimplications of the "illusion of reality" presented by virtual worlds.

Ethical Issues of Information Systems


Ethical Issues of Information Systems


$18.33


Understanding, appreciating and taking corrective steps to maintain and enhance social and ethical responsibility in the information age is important not only because of our increased dependence on information and communication technologies, but also because information and communication technologies pose complex challenges. Ethical Issues of Information Systems strives to address these pertinent issues. This scholarly and academic book provides insight on many topics of debate and discussion in the field and lends the most recent research in the field of IT ethics and social responsibility.

Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume I


Women and Health Research: Ethical and Legal Issues of Including Women in Clinical Studies, Volume I


$3.66


In the nineteenth century some scientists argued that women should not be educated because thinking would use energy needed by the uterus for reproduction. The proof? Educated women had a lower birth rate. Today’s researchers can only shake their heads at such reasoning. Yet professional journals and the popular press are increasingly criticizing medical research for ignoring women’s health issues. Women and Health Research examines the facts behind the public’s perceptions about women participating as subjects in medical research. With the goal of increasing researchers’ awareness of this important topic, the book explores issues related to maintaining justice (in its ethical sense) in clinical studies. Leading experts present general principles for the ethical conduct of research on women–principles that are especially important in the light of recent changes in federal policy on the inclusion of women in clinical research. Women and Health Research documents the historical shift from a paternalistic approach by researchers toward women and a disproportionate reliance on certain groups for research to one that emphasizes proper access for women as subjects in clinical studies in order to ensure that women receive the benefits of research. The book addresses present-day challenges to equity in four areas: Scientific–Do practical aspects of scientific research work at cross-purposes to gender equity? Focusing on drug trials, the authors identify rationales for excluding people from research based on demographics. Social and Ethical–The authors offer compelling discussions on subjectivity in science, the evidence for male bias, and issues related to race and ethnicity, as well as the recruitment, retention, and protection of research participants. Legal–Women and Health Research reviews federal research policies that affect the inclusion of women and evaluates the basis for researchers’ fears about liability, citing court cases. Risk–The authors focus on risks to reproduction and offspring in clinical drug trials, exploring how risks can be identified for study participants, who should make the assessment of risk and benefit for participation in a clinical study, and how legal implications could be addressed. This landmark study will be of immediate use to the research community, policymakers, women’s health advocates, attorneys, and individuals.

Ethical Issues in Scientific Research: An Anthology


Ethical Issues in Scientific Research: An Anthology


$4.95


After a brief overview, sections contain readings on such topics as science and values, science and the misrepresentation of data, human experimentation, animal experimentation, genetic research, and other controversial areas of research.

Ethical Issues and Guidelines in Psychology


Ethical Issues and Guidelines in Psychology


$3.46


What are the right ways to behave and the right ways to treat other people? Ethics are the rules and guidelines that we use to make judgements of right and wrong. Psychologists have to consider ethical issues because they deal with people and study their behaviour on a daily basis. The study of ethics is one of the more difficult areas of psychology because there are no clear answers. That might well make it one of the more interesting areas for you, or one of the most frustrating. In this book we offer you the opportunity to develop and express your own opinion in relation to ethics in psychology. The book explains some key ethical issues and reviews the various ethical principles and guidelines developed by professional bodies. The problems relating to different kinds of research are discussed, as well as the special case of socially sensitive research. Finally the question of the use of animals in research is examined – is it useful and is it right to use non-human animals in psychological research?

The Ethical Brain


The Ethical Brain


$3.48


Will increased scientific understanding of our brains overturn our beliefs about moral and ethical behavior? How will increasingly powerful brain imaging technologies affect the ideas of privacy and of self-incrimination? Such thought-provoking questions are rapidly emerging as new discoveries in neuroscience have raised difficult legal and ethical dilemmas. Michael Gazzaniga, widely considered to be the father of cognitive neuroscience, investigates with an expert eye some of these controversial and complex issues in "The Ethical Brain." He first examines "lifespan neuroethics" and considers how brain development defines human life, from when an embryo develops a brain and could be considered "one of us" to the issues raised as the brain ages, such as whether we should have complete freedom to extend our lives and enhance our brains through the use of genetics, pharmaceuticals, and training. Gazzaniga also considers the challenges posed to the justice system by new discoveries in neuroscience. Recent findings suggest that our brain has already made a decision before we become fully aware of doing so, raising the question of whether the concept of personal responsibility can remain a fundamental tenet of the law. Gazzaniga argues that as neuroscience learns more about the unreliability of human memory, the very foundation of trial law will be challenged. Gazzaniga then discusses a radical re-evaluation of the nature of moral belief, as he not only looks at possibly manipulating the part of the brain that creates beliefs but also explores how scientific research is building a brain-based account of moral reasoning. "The Ethical Brain" is a groundbreaking volume that presents neuroscience’s loaded findings–and their ethical implications–in an engaging and readable manner, offering an incisive and thoughtful analysis of the medical ethics challenges confronting modern society at the dawn of the twenty-first century.

Nanotechnology & Society: Current and Emerging Ethical Issues


Nanotechnology & Society: Current and Emerging Ethical Issues


$61.94


Nanotechnology & Society is a collection of sixteen papers focused on the most urgent issues arising from nanotechnology today and in the near future. Written by leading researchers, policy experts, and nanoethics scholars worldwide, the book is divided into five units: foundational issues; risk and regulation; industry and policy; the human condition; and selected global issues. The essays tackle such contentious issues as environmental impact, health dangers, medical benefits, intellectual property, professional code of ethics, privacy, international governance, and more. FRITZ ALLHOFF, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Western Michigan University and Research Associate in the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics at The Australian National University. PATRICK LIN, PhD, is a Visiting Assistant Professor of Philosophy at California State Polytechnic University, San Luis Obispo, and has academic appointments at Dartmouth College and Western Michigan University. Both editors are also co-founders of The Nanoethics Group.

Ethical Issues in Biotechnology


Ethical Issues in Biotechnology


$18.11


Ethical Issues in Biotechnology is the first textbook of its kind, written collaboratively by a philosopher and a biologist to provide undergraduate students with a comprehensive, accessible introduction to the ethical and scientific fundamentals of biotechnology. Engaging the ethics and the science side by side, the text addresses pressing questions in agricultural, food, and animal biotechnology; human genetics; gene therapy; human cloning; and stem cell research. A general introduction to both the moral philosophy and fundamentals of genetics is enhanced throughout the text with section-specific introductions addressing the particular philosophical and scientific challenges posed by the topic under consideration. Diagrams and drawings, study cases, liberal use of practical examples, and suggestions for further reading make the text an ideal resource for a broad range of students interested in issues and questions lying at the intersection of philosophy and genetics.

Ethical Issues in Professional Life


Ethical Issues in Professional Life


$12.77


When (if ever) may a professional deceive a client for the client’s own good? Under what conditions (if any) is whistle-blowing morally required? These are just some of the questions that scholars as diverse as Michael D. Bayles, Thomas Nagel, Sissela Bok, Jessica Mitford, and Peter A. French confront in this stimulating anthology. Organized around philosophical issues such as the moral foundations of professional ethics, models of the professional-client relationship, deception, informed consent, privacy and confidentiality, professional dissent, and professional virtue, the volume illuminates the complex ethical issues that arise in journalism, law, health care, counseling, education, engineering, business, politics, and social science research. A variety of pedagogic aids including clear introductions to and study questions for each set of readings, concrete cases designed to focus discussion, and an appendix on preparing cases and position papers, make the text invaluable for both students and teachers of professional ethics.

Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Children and Adolescents


Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research with Children and Adolescents


$23.39


Studies involving children with mental, emotional, or behavioral problems–or their families–have to meet certain standards of research ethics. This book contains chapters on the kinds of ethical dilemmas that typically occur in different types of studies of children, and then presents 65 real-world cases from experts who study children’s mental health. These experts offer practical suggestions for how to handle these dilemmas. Chapters on the perspectives of parents, regulators, and bioethicists provide additional points of view on these issues. Written in down-to-earth language, this book will be useful for professionals who study children, for those who train students in research methods, and for parents who are thinking about participating in research studies. In attempting to bridge the apparent gap between ethics and science, the editors close this volume on a note commonly sounded by researchers: more research is needed. Yet in this area, a new kind of research is required. The science of scientific ethics must be developed and expanded, and better understanding of the determinants and circumstances under which children can comprehend and evaluate risks and benefits is needed. Likewise, fuller knowledge of the contextual factors affecting children’s and families’ consent to participate in research is essential. In particular, development of scales to assess children’s ability to comprehend risk-benefit issues, studies of families’ reactions to research procedures, and empirical data on the impact of various forms of participant reimbursement will advance both science and ethics. This volume should spur further research, serving as a guide for current investigators, participating families, institutional review boards, and policymakers who shape the research enterprise.

Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine:


Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine:


$3.61


This comprehensive anthology represents the key issues and problems in the fi eld of medical ethics through the most up-to-date readings and case studies available. Each of the book’s six parts is prefaced with helpful introductions that raise important questions and skillfully contextualize the positions and main points of the articles that follow.

An Ethical Approach to Practitioner Research: Dealing with Issues and Dilemmas in Action Research


An Ethical Approach to Practitioner Research: Dealing with Issues and Dilemmas in Action Research


$48.82


Practice based research is burgeoning in a number of professional areas. An Ethical Approach to Practitioner Research covers a comprehensive range of issues and dilemmas encountered in practitioner and action research contexts. While principally focused upon practitioner inquiry in education it takes account of, and acknowledges that others engaged in professional practice such as in legal, nursing and social care contexts, face similar issues and dilemmas. It aims to stimulate ethical thinking and practice in enquiry and research contexts. Following moves to promote professional learning and development in the workplace, there is an increase in the number of practitioners engaging in action or inquiry based learning in the workplace supported by university staff or consultants, as evidenced in the emergence of professional learning communities and learning networks. There are many tensions inherent in relationships between practitioners and academics in terms of the setting of the research agenda, the policy implications that may flow from it and the right to publish outcomes. Negotiating that relationship requires ethical probity where each party recognises, understands and respects mutual responsibilities. The book explores this through a wide variety of roles from those of academic researchers, consultants and teachers to professional practitioners as researchers and, importantly, students and children. It therefore illustrates a number of differing perspectives about ethics and research which are allied to those roles Drawing on the expertise of international researchers and academics from America, Australia and Europe, the book provides invaluable support to the novice researcher and illuminates some of the more intricate issues for the more experienced research practitioner.Packed with detailed and thought-provoking examples this book contains both theoretical analyses of ethical matters and offers practical advice to practitioner and action researchers across the fields of schools hospitals and community and family settings.

Human Tissue Research: A European Perspective on the Ethical and Legal Challenges


Human Tissue Research: A European Perspective on the Ethical and Legal Challenges


$97.57


The use of human tissue for medical research and scientific progress raises many ethical and legal challenges. The procurement, storage and transfer of human tissue for research purposes have posed significant questions over recent years, and a number of high profile scandals in the UK prompted the publication of the Madden Report on Post Mortem Practice and Procedures in Irish hospitals in 2006. Additionally, tissue-related research tends to be most promising if samples and information are shared across national borders, but the heterogeneity of current rules and guidelines within the member states of the European Union calls all the more for clarification. This multi-authored interdisciplinary text, edited by four experienced researchers, explores many of the issues concerning biobank-related research and aims to provide answers to the most urgent questions by means of ethical, philosophical, and legal investigation. It provides a fascinating insight into a wide range of interlinking research perspectives and serves as a comprehensive reference to the state of play ethically and legally in Europe. It will be of value to medics and social scientists, human tissue researchers, and policy makers who have an interest in ethical and legal issues of human tissue research.

Is God Still at the Bedside?: The Medical, Ethical, and Pastoral Issues of Death and Dying


Is God Still at the Bedside?: The Medical, Ethical, and Pastoral Issues of Death and Dying


$25.7


Abigail Rian Evans here examines the medical, ethical, theological, pastoral, and legal issues surrounding death and dying from a Christian perspective. Her work is informed by insights from patients, their families, and health care staff and results in a book that will ably assist professionals, patients, and their families in making difficult end-of-life decisions.

Legal, Ethical, and Political Issues in Nursing


Legal, Ethical, and Political Issues in Nursing


$16.54


– New chapter on quality assurance and risk management — Summary added to end of each chapter — More emphasis on ethical issues and the role of the nurse in the political process — New information on the impaired colleague, the role of the advanced practice nurse, organ donation, advanced directives, medical disclosure panels, right-to-die cases, and disciplinary insurance — Expanded information on the use and supervision of unlicensed assistive personnel, case management, documentation, common documentation errors, and documenting using critical paths — Case examples of ethical dilemmas from different areas of nursing, including pediatrics, geriatrics, home health, and living will/DNR

Non-Heart-Beating Organ Transplantation: Medical and Ethical Issues in Procurement


Non-Heart-Beating Organ Transplantation: Medical and Ethical Issues in Procurement


$26.01


Non-heart-beating donors (individuals whose deaths result from a cardiopulmonary cause) could potentially be of major importance in reducing the gap between the demand for and available supply of organs for transplantation. Prompted by questions concerning the medical management of such donors — specifically, whether interventions undertaken to enhance the supply and quality of potentially transplantable organs (i.e., the use of anticoagulants and vasodilators) were in the best interests of donor patients or were instead hastening their deaths — the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services asked the Institute of Medicine to examine from scientific and ethical points of view "alternative medical approaches that can be used to maximize the availability of organs from (a) donor (in an end-of-life situation) without violating prevailing ethical norms…". This book examines transplantation supply and demand, historical and modern conceptions of non-heart-beating donors, and organ procurement organization and transplant program policies and contains recommendations concerning the principles and ethical issues surrounding the topic.

Reprogenetics: Law, Policy, and Ethical Issues


Reprogenetics: Law, Policy, and Ethical Issues


$56.12


From the cloning of Dolly the sheep a decade ago to more recent advances in embryonic stem cell research, new genetic technologies have often spurred polemical, ill-informed debates. Perhaps nowhere is this more evident than in the field of reproductive genetics, where difficult bioethical issues are distilled into sound bites and far-fetched claims for easy public consumption. The underlying complexities of reprogenetic research and practice are often drowned out by the noise. In this thoughtful and informed collection, Lori P. Knowles and Gregory E. Kaebnick bring together bioethicists from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom to examine the ethical and policy quandaries created by new genetic technologies. Featuring an overview of the field’s history (including lessons to be learned from eugenics), comparisons of international and domestic governmental regulations, and discussions of how the market and public opinion affect research, this book considers both the risks and the benefits of combining genetic and reproductive technologies. Concluding with a cautionary call for increased regulation, Reprogenetics introduces fact, history, and reason into a public discussion of complex and vexing issues.

Ethic Issues Behavl Research


Ethic Issues Behavl Research


$3.49


This book seeks to reflect the growing level of concern worldwide regarding the importance of ethical issues within the conduct of behavioral sciences research. Each chapter includes worldwide case studies of ethically controversial investigations which encourage students to more in-depth study.

Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age


Ethical and Social Issues in the Information Age


$4.93


Rapid advances in computing and information science often outpace society’s ability to adapt its moral and legal codes. Different computing paradigms applied to the same ethical issues can often lead to conflicting confusions. This second edition examines ethical, social, and policy challenges stemming from the emergence of cyberspace, the convergence of telecommunications, and other information handling products. The book broadly surveys thought-provoking questions about the impact of these new technologies, with particular emphasis on the growth of the Internet, artificial intelligence, cyberspace, and virtual reality. Topics and features: * Describes how changes in information technology influence morality and the law. * Surveys the history of computing and the recent evolution of computer crimes * Incorporates recent requirements for computer science curricula * Assess workplace concerns related to privacy, surveillance, and virtual offices * Contains numerous discussion and research projects on all presented material * Considers what should be covered in a professional code of conduct of IT professionals * Offers a pertinent discussion on civil liberties, harassment, and discrimination..

Ethical Considerations for Research Involving Prisoners


Ethical Considerations for Research Involving Prisoners


$73.07


In the past 30 years, the population of prisoners in the United States has expanded almost 5-fold, correctional facilities are increasingly overcrowded, and more of the country’s disadvantaged populations&#8212racial minorities, women, people with mental illness, and people with communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C, and tuberculosis&#8212are under correctional supervision. Because prisoners face restrictions on liberty and autonomy, have limited privacy, and often receive inadequate health care, they require specific protections when involved in research, particularly in today’s correctional settings. Given these issues, the Department of Health and Human Services’ Office for Human Research Protections commissioned the Institute of Medicine to review the ethical considerations regarding research involving prisoners. The resulting analysis contained in this book, Ethical Considerations for Research Involving Prisoners, emphasizes five broad actions to provide prisoners involved in research with critically important protections: &#8226 expand the definition of "prisoner"; &#8226 ensure universally and consistently applied standards of protection; &#8226 shift from a category-based to a risk-benefit approach to research review; &#8226 update the ethical framework to include collaborative responsibility; and &#8226 enhance systematic oversight of research involving prisoners.

Stem Cell Research: Medical Applications and Ethical Controversies


Stem Cell Research: Medical Applications and Ethical Controversies


$5.79


Now with full-color photographs and line illustrations, Stem Cell Research, Revised Edition discusses the different types of stem cells, how they are studied in the laboratory, and the diseases that may be treated with these cells. This edition has been extensively revised and expanded to include four new chapters that discuss the origin and evolution of ordinary cells, as well as a detailed discussion of human and animal stem cells, therapeutic cloning, and a new form of stem cell that is produced by reprogramming ordinary skin cells. Featuring up-to-date coverage on the medical applications of stem cell therapy, this resource examines the growing cost of developing these therapies and the important role that pharmaceutical companies play. Written in accessible and straightforward language, this helpful book offers readers a timely look at this controversial topic.

Research Ethics


Research Ethics


$157.17


Medicine in the twenty-first century is increasingly reliant on research to guarantee the safety and efficacy of medical interventions. As a result, the need to understand the ethical issues that research generates is becoming essential. This volume introduces the principal areas of concern in research on human subjects, offering a framework for understanding research ethics, and the relationship between ethics and compliance. Research Ethics brings together leading scholars in bioethics and the topics covered include the unique concerns that arise in specific areas of research such as gene therapy and stem cell research. Individual chapters also address the ethical issues that occur when conducting research with specific populations such as infants or adolescents, and the volume looks at important emerging questions in human subjects research, namely financial conflicts of interest and the interpretation of scientific data.

Ethical Issues in the New Reproductive Technologies


Ethical Issues in the New Reproductive Technologies


$3.95


In the last few decades, as new reproductive technologies have been developed, couples desiring children have increasingly turned to various medical interventions when natural conception has been unsuccessful. In this informative overview of the ethical implications of reproductive technologies, philosopher Richard T. Hull offers a cross-section of the thinking of individuals specializing in the ethical and legal problems involved in this new area of medicine. The contributors reflect interests as varied as those of the enthusiastic proponent of the new reproductive technologies, the feminist opposing the exploitation of women, the social critic worrying about erosion of the responsibilities of parenting, and the traditionalist concerned with the transformation of the fundamental moral fabric and social character of the family. Many of the chapters includes cases for further discussion and reflection. Also included are three speculative scenarios: selections from Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale, Aldous Huxley’s Brave New World, and Gena Corea’s report of the drive to develop an artificial womb. This excellent collection of expert articles will stimulate appreciation of the complex character of moral decision-making as it is experienced by patients, medical professionals, legislators, and jurists.

Ethical Marketing


Ethical Marketing


$65.19


This book examines, discusses and provides guidance on ethical issues facing marketing practitioners. It begins with an examination of the major ethical theories and applies them in a marketing context. This book accentuates the positive practices that business firms can employ to bring about more ethical marketing. Coverage provides a thorough examination of marketing ethics (advertising, product safety and targeting markets) as well as marketing research, product counterfeiting, channels of distribution, selling practices and how to implement ethics into marketing organizations. For marketing practitioners and those in the business ethics field.

Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine


Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine


$3.46


Shows health care professionals how to identify, analyze, and resolve ethical issues in clinical medicine, using the Four-Box Method ( medical indications, patient preferences, quality of life, and contextual features). The Fifth Edition emphasizes evidence-based medicine, and explores new issues in treatment and research.

Legal and Ethical Aspects of HIV-Related Research


Legal and Ethical Aspects of HIV-Related Research


$3.95


This unique volume summarizes the basic legal and ethical principles related to HIV research, striking a balance between theory and practice. The author offers practical suggestions for the implementation of these principles and integrate them with a discussion of relevant scientific research principles. The book’s organization follows the sequence of a study: pre-study planning, issues that may arise during the course of the study, and issues that arise after the study’s conclusion. Features include sample forms that can be adopted for use, explanatory tables and figures, and the citation of examples specific to HIV research.

Ethical Issues in Forensic Psychiatry: Minimizing Harm


Ethical Issues in Forensic Psychiatry: Minimizing Harm


$64.98


Ethical medical practice and treatment in psychiatry are based on the concept of first do no harm. However, this cannot, and does not, apply to forensic cases where there is no doctor-patient relationship and the forensic psychiatrist may indeed cause harm to the examinee. In this book, Robert Sadoff analyzes the ethical issues affecting forensic psychiatric practice, especially those promulgated by the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. Within those guidelines, he looks at individual bias, vulnerability of the examinee, and potential harm to the mental health professional. The book discusses each of the procedures of the forensic expert separately with respect to minimizing harm. It has been written with an international audience in mind and features chapters reviewing the European and UK perspectives, by Emanuele Valenti and John Baird, respectively. Robert Sadoff addresses the long-term harm that can be either avoided or minimized through careful planning and application of ethical principles. He is not advocating that the harm can be totally eliminated, because that is impossible in the adversarial system in which forensic psychiatrists work. However, there are means by which harm may be minimized if care is taken during the assessment, the report writing, and the testimony phase of the proceedings. The book develops the scope of forensic psychiatry from the standpoint of administrative, civil and criminal cases. It presents the practical issues involved in conducting forensic psychiatric assessments under various conditions plus special considerations, such as bias, minimizing harm, developing a therapeutic approach, and elaborating on various vulnerable individuals who are frequently examined in forensic cases. These include juveniles, mentally retarded, autistic, sexual assault victims, the elderly, the organically damaged, the psychotic, and mentally disabled prisoners. Immigrants are covered in a chapter by Solange Margery Bertoglia. The ethical issues in conducting forensic psychiatric examinations and presenting psychiatric testimony in court are examined and discussed. Cases illustrating the difficulties involved punctuate the presentation. The book closes with a fascinating account of the legal perspective by Donna Vanderpool. In summary, this book illustrates the ethical and practical issues that affect forensic psychiatric practice. The question is not what we do, but how we do it, and which standards, ethical guidelines and personal values contribute to the total picture. Despite the fact that we cannot always adhere to the doctrine of "primum non nocere," we can minimize the harm caused inherently by the adversarial system in which we participate. Praise for ‘Ethical Issues in Forensic Psychiatry’ "One of the founding giants of the forensic psychiatric field has written here far more than a "mere" ethics textbook. Instead, this compendium serves multiple purposes: it is a valuable

Ethical Decision Making in Physical Activity Research


Ethical Decision Making in Physical Activity Research


$3.46


Can scientific studies that expose subjects to potentially harmful situations be justified if the subjects are volunteers? Should students be required to participate as subjects in research projects developed to benefit their professors? Can a single set of ethical rules apply to all research situations? These and other questions come under scrutiny in "Ethical Decision Making in Physical Activity Research." Written by a lawyer and physical educator, this book explores the important relationship between ethics and the research process. The book begins with a discussion of the scientific method and basic parameters of ethical behavior, then focuses on ethical concerns that can arise in the following situations: -The selection and formation of the research question -The work of institutional review boards -Methodology, including the use of human and animal subjects, data collection, and statistical analysis -The presentation of results, including publication -Measures used to prevent fraud and misconduct Fifteen case studies highlight the text and help readers develop sensitivity toward ethical issues in research and how to think ethically. Researchers can use the case studies to help them learn to-identify the ethical dilemma in question, -determine the choices available for resolving the dilemma, -evaluate the ethics of the actual choice made to resolve the dilemma, and -decide on the most appropriate course of action.The author encourages readers to consider potential ethical issues from the moment the research problem is contemplated until it has been studied and published. The book also describes how to discipline fraudulent researchers and proposes how to improve ethical conduct.

The Ethical Consumer


The Ethical Consumer


$88.5


This book is not simply the best book on the remarkable phenomenon of today’s ethical consumer. It is a gift of advice and insight, from the people that know best, to the cause of tomorrow. Many of the writers deserve the plaudits of being pioneers of a new consumer movement. These are the issues of our time’ – "Ed Mayo, Chief Executive of the UK’s National Consumer Council (NCe " Who are ethical consumers and why are they on the rise? Leading the way towards answering this question, The Ethical Consumer is an indispensable introduction to the subject. Exploring areas like boycotts and fair trade projects, it gathers together the diverse experiences of scholars, campaigners and business practitioners from the international community. The chapters in this book explore: – ethical consumer behaviours, motivation and narratives – the social, political and theoretical contexts in which ethical consumers operate – the responsibilities of businesses and the effectiveness of ethical consumer actions Contributions are informed by a broad range of research methods, from case studies, focus groups to surveys and interviews. The text is of interest to business related graduates, undergraduates and their tutors on courses relating to consumption. It will also be relevant to academics in other disciplines, as well as to politicians, producers, practitioners, campaigners and not least consumers.

The Law and Ethics of Medical Research: International Bioethics and Human Rights


The Law and Ethics of Medical Research: International Bioethics and Human Rights


$57.26


The growing globalization of medical research and the application of new biotechnologies in morally contested areas has forced a revision of international ethical guidelines. This book examines the controversies surrounding biomedical research in the twenty-first century from a human rights perspective, analyzing the evolution and changes in form and content of international instruments regulating the conduct of biomedical research. The approach adopted is comparative and includes an evaluation of human rights and UK and US law on embryonic stem cell research, the HIV/AIDS trials in the developing world, the Alder Hey Inquiry and the human radiation and nerve gas experiments on human subjects in the US and the UK. This is the first book to analyze some of the major issues in biomedical research today from an international, comparative human rights perspective.

Writing Clinical Research Protocols: Ethical Considerations


Writing Clinical Research Protocols: Ethical Considerations


$59.44


This highly engaging guide for clinical researchers provides a foundation for improving skills in the understanding of ethical requirements in the design and conduct of clinical research. It includes practical information on ethical principles in clinical research, designing appropriate research studies, writing consent and assent documents, getting protocols approved, special populations, confidentiality issues, and the reporting of adverse events. A valuable appendix includes a listing of web resources about research ethics as well as a glossary. This will be an invaluable resource for basic scientists collaborating in clinical trials, physician investigators, clinical research fellows, research nurse coordinators, residents, and anyone who wants a better understanding of the clinical trials process. * Walks investigators and trainees through identification of the ethical aspects of each section of a clinical research protocol * Includes a chapter containing Case Histories * Contains information on conducting clinical research within the pharmaceutical industry * An appendix includes internet resources and world wide web addresses for important research ethics documents and regulations * Chapter on ‘Study Design and Methodology’ purposely expanded to explicitly address biostatistical considerations

Understanding Eating Disorders: Conceptual and Ethical Issues in the Treatment of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa


Understanding Eating Disorders: Conceptual and Ethical Issues in the Treatment of Anorexia and Bulimia Nervosa


$21.39


Simona Giordano presents the first full philosophical study of ethical issues in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Beginning with a comprehensive analysis of these conditions and an exploration of their complex causes, she then proceeds to address legal and ethical dilemmas such as a patient’s refusal of life-saving treatment. Illustrated with many case-studies, Understanding Eating Disorders is an essential tool for anyone working with sufferers of these much misunderstood conditions, and for all those ethicists, lawyers, and medical practitioners engaged with the widely relevant issues they raise.

Multiple Victimization of Children: Conceptual, Developmental, Research & Treatment Issues


Multiple Victimization of Children: Conceptual, Developmental, Research & Treatment Issues


$3.95


Mental health professionals who work with abused and neglected children have long recognized that their clients do not necessarily experience only one form of maltreatment; however, until now there was no single source for researchers and clinicians to refer to about the effects of multiple victimization on children’s development. Multiple Victimization of Children: Conceptual, Developmental, Research, and Treatment Issues fills the gap in the literature by bringing together theorists, researchers, and clinicians to present current theoretical models and address research and clinical issues for multiply victimized children and adolescents, with a special focus on the impact of victimization in major domains of development. As the only book to focus specifically on children who experience the co-occurrence of different types of maltreatment, Multiple Victimization of Children ties together developmental and trauma research of the multiple victimization of children and youth and contributes to the thrust to consider maltreatment from a developmental systems perspective. You’ll also see how treatment demands differ for those who experience multiple versus single forms of maltreatment. Other things you learn about include: three different conceptual models (risk and resiliency, stress and coping, trauma and post-traumatic reactions) from which to view the co-occurrence of maltreatment singular and multiple victimization literature on young children, school-age children, and adolescents the impact of multiple maltreatment on the ongoing development of children in the cognitive, self, affect, and social domains ritualized abuse and a victim’s capacity to change legal, ethical, and research issues Multiple Victimization of Children will save you time, energy, and money by assisting you in planning research and treatment interventions, and in formulating legal, medical, educational, and community strategies for dealing with multiple maltreatment victims. Researchers in the developmental and trauma fields will gain ideas about research directions, protocols for research designs, and insight into problems that have plagued other researchers. Mental health and community agency professionals, as well as attorneys and legal advocates involved in the juvenile justice system also benefit greatly from this book. Finally, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in psychology, social work, and educational counseling will be able to get an overview of the current child maltreatment information and the unique problems presented by this population of children and families.

Multiple Victimization of Children: Conceptual, Developmental, Research and Treatment Issues


Multiple Victimization of Children: Conceptual, Developmental, Research and Treatment Issues


$23.93


Mental health professionals who work with abused and neglected children have long recognized that their clients do not necessarily experience only one form of maltreatment; however, until now there was no single source for researchers and clinicians to refer to about the effects of multiple victimization on children’s development. Multiple Victimization of Children: Conceptual, Developmental, Research, and Treatment Issues fills the gap in the literature by bringing together theorists, researchers, and clinicians to present current theoretical models and address research and clinical issues for multiply victimized children and adolescents, with a special focus on the impact of victimization in major domains of development. As the only book to focus specifically on children who experience the co-occurrence of different types of maltreatment, Multiple Victimization of Children ties together developmental and trauma research of the multiple victimization of children and youth and contributes to the thrust to consider maltreatment from a developmental systems perspective. You’ll also see how treatment demands differ for those who experience multiple versus single forms of maltreatment. Other things you learn about include: three different conceptual models (risk and resiliency, stress and coping, trauma and post-traumatic reactions) from which to view the co-occurrence of maltreatment singular and multiple victimization literature on young children, school-age children, and adolescents the impact of multiple maltreatment on the ongoing development of children in the cognitive, self, affect, and social domains ritualized abuse and a victim’s capacity to change legal, ethical, and research issues Multiple Victimization of Children will save you time, energy, and money by assisting you in planning research and treatment interventions, and in formulating legal, medical, educational, and community strategies for dealing with multiple maltreatment victims. Researchers in the developmental and trauma fields will gain ideas about research directions, protocols for research designs, and insight into problems that have plagued other researchers. Mental health and community agency professionals, as well as attorneys and legal advocates involved in the juvenile justice system also benefit greatly from this book. Finally, upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in psychology, social work, and educational counseling will be able to get an overview of the current child maltreatment information and the unique problems presented by this population of children and families.

Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine with Free Ethics Powerweb


Ethical Issues in Modern Medicine with Free Ethics Powerweb


$3.95


This comprehensive anthology represents the key issues and problems in the field of medical ethics through the most up-to-date readings and case studies available. Each of the book’s five parts is prefaced with helpful introductions that raise important questions and skillfully contextualize the positions and main points of the articles that follow..

Medical Law and Ethics


Medical Law and Ethics


$3.95


This bestseller presents a wealth of timely information on the legal and ethical principles in healthcare. Noted for its straightforward style in which it acquaints readers with essential information, the book examines topics such as the patient/physician relationship, professional liability, medical malpractice prevention, the medical record, confidentiality, bioethical issues, and HIPAA. Completely revised in a new 3rd edition, this overview of medical law and ethics is written in straightforward language for "non-lawyer" healthcare professionals. It is designed to help them better understand their ethical obligation to themselves, their patients, and their employer. Features of the new edition include: full-color images illustrate concepts and provide a dynamic reader experience; integrated case studies illustrate real-world examples of legal issues and principles in actual medical settings; and actual legal citations are highlighted throughout the text to assist with in-depth research.


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